Overview Of The Development Of Flavor Enhancers

- Aug 02, 2019-

First generation

The most important of these flavors is sodium L-glutamate (MSG), commonly known as MSG. Amino acid flavoring agents include L-alanine, glycine, aspartic acid and methionine in addition to sodium glutamate; natural L-myridine and L-amanita valine are more fresh than glutamine. The freshness of sodium is 5-10 times greater. Various amino acids have their own unique flavors, such as DL-alanine to enhance the flavor of pickled products, glycine has shrimp and cuttlefish flavor, and methionine has sea urchin flavor.

Second generation

The flavonoids having umami taste include inosinic acid (IMP), guanylate (GMP), cytidine (OMP), uridine (UMP), and xanthoic acid (XMP). The 5'-inosinic acid is present in an aqueous solution as long as it is present in an amount of from 0.012% to 0.025%. Sodium 5'-inosinate and sodium 5'-guanylic acid are decomposed and deactivated when heated for a long time below pH 3, but are very stable at pH 4-6. These two nucleotides are very sensitive to the phosphate-degrading enzyme, because the phosphate-degrading enzyme can remove the phosphoric acid and lose its taste. The 5'-flavored nucleotide (I+G) on the market is a 50% mixture of 5'-inosinate and 5'-guanylic acid sodium, and when they are mixed with sodium glutamate, Multiply the effect.

Hydrolyzed animal protein (HAP) is a new food additive used primarily in the production of high-grade condiments and as a base for functional foods. HAP is mainly prepared from chicken, pork, beef, etc. by acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The acid hydrolysis method requires strong acid and high temperature, and the essential amino acid tryptophan is destroyed, the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions are mild, the amino acid is not destroyed, and the configuration does not change. Animal proteins are formed by condensation and polymerization of various amino acids. When proteins are decomposed into polypeptides and free amino acids, they exhibit various complex tastes, while odors are derived from the products of polar amino acids and reducing sugars through Maillard reaction. As a compound seasoning, chicken essence (powder) should have a sweet and satisfying taste and a strong chicken flavor. The production process of chicken essence: the chicken is adjusted to pH 6.5, the neutral protease is 1.5%, the temperature is controlled at 45-50 degrees, the hydrolysis is 2 to 3 hours, the enzyme is inactivated, and the salt, sweetener, flavoring agent and flavor are added. Reinforcing agents, spices, fillers, etc. can be used.

Third Generation

The third-generation umami seasoning is a flavor-type umami seasoning, including animal protein hydrolysate, plant protein hydrolysate, and yeast extract, all of which are novel food savory agents, mainly used in the production of various seasonings and foods. Nutritional strengthening, and as a base for functional foods, is an important raw material for the production of meat flavors.

Animal protein hydrolysate (HAP) refers to a product obtained by hydrolyzing protein-rich animal tissues by physical or enzymatic methods. These raw materials such as livestock, poultry meat, bone and fish have high protein content, and the amino acid composition pattern of the contained protein is closer to the human body, and is completely protein and has a good flavor. In addition to retaining the nutrients of the raw materials, HAP is easily dissolved in water due to hydrolysis of the protein into small peptides and free L-type amino acids, which is beneficial to human digestion and absorption, and the original flavor is more prominent.

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) is a nutritive food additive used primarily in the production of bases for high-grade condiments and fortified foods and as raw materials for meat flavors. The preparation of HVP mainly uses soybean meal, zein, gluten, peanut cake and cottonseed as raw materials, and the protein is decomposed into amino acids and short peptides by acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis. In the industry, HVP is mainly used as a catalyst to produce HVP. Due to the high acid hydrolysis temperature (110-113), the reaction conditions are fierce and the equipment requirements are relatively high. In addition, hydrolysis of hydrochloric acid destroys tryptophan, one of the essential amino acids. More importantly, due to the residual amount of vegetable oil and fat remaining in the soybean meal, it is hydrolyzed to fat and glycerol under the action of hydrochloric acid. Glycerol is chemically reacted at high temperature with concentrated hydrochloric acid to form various chloropropanol ( Chioroydrine), which has certain toxicity and damage to the liver, kidney and nervous system of the human body. Among them, 1,2-Diol (3-MCPD) is carcinogenic. Enzymatic hydrolysis of HVP is based on protease, which has high efficiency, specificity, mild reaction conditions, and has incomparable advantages in the retention of nutrients. The hydrolysate only has short peptides and amino acids, which meets the requirements of food hygiene. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant protein production is an inevitable trend of development.

Yeast extract (also known as yeast extract or yeast extract, Yeastextract) is an internationally popular nutritional multi-functional flavoring and flavor enhancer that occupies 1/3 of the market in the umami market in Europe. Raw materials such as yeast, brewer's yeast, and raw yeast are prepared by an autolytic method including an improved autolysing method, an enzymatic method, an acid heat processing method, or the like. As a freshening agent and flavor enhancer, yeast extract retains various nutrients contained in yeast, including proteins, amino acids, peptides, dextran, various minerals and rich vitamin B. Adding to the food not only increases the umami taste, but also masks the bitterness and odor, and obtains a more gentle and full-bodied taste. However, the yeast extract obtained by the autolytic method is generally less than 2% because of the guanylic acid and inosinic acid content, and the umami taste is not enough. It has been used by many international traders after it has been found to have synergistic effects when nucleotides and glutamic acid coexist. The guanylic acid and inosinic acid are added as an additive to the yeast extract to enhance the flavor and umami taste of the yeast extract.

Fourth Generation

The fourth generation of sputum enhancers are mainly complex flavor enhancers. It is made up of amino acids, monosodium glutamate, nucleotides, natural hydrolysates or extracts, organic acids, sweet barium inorganic salts, even spices, oils and other raw materials with different flavor enhancement effects. The seasoning product can directly satisfy a certain seasoning purpose. These seasonings have a nutritional function while also having a special flavor. The basic raw material is the extract of meat and poultry. Animals, plant hydrolyzed proteins, yeast extracts, etc., and then add MSG, salt, fillers, etc. can become a new flavor seasoning. The characteristics are many varieties, different tastes and rich colors. For example, hot pot ingredients, instant noodle dry packs, sauce packs, seasoning wine, fried chicken powder, etc. Glutamate and sodium ribonucleotide, sodium succinate, sodium aspartate, glycine, alanine, citric acid (sodium), malic acid, fumaric acid, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and Differently blended with hydrolyzed vegetable protein, hydrolyzed animal protein, animal and plant amino acid extracts, etc., can be made into a composite flavoring agent having different characteristics, and the method is applied to various foods.

Fifth Generation

Natural extracts and natural compound seasonings are characterized by “natural” 2 characters and belong to the fifth generation of umami seasonings. Natural compound seasonings should have two properties: one is a highly safe seasoning product obtained from natural animal and plant raw materials through extraction, extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, thermal reaction and auxiliary preparation. Second, in terms of flavor expression, the effect should be as close as possible to the flavors of homes, restaurants, and kitchens to avoid the “processing flavor”.

Broadly speaking, natural seasoning refers to the use of naturally-produced raw materials to treat natural products by non-chemical means (including extraction, separation, heating and fermentation) to produce liquid, cream or powder. product. Brewed products such as pure fermented soy sauce, as well as animals (aquaculture), plant extracts, etc., are classified as natural seasonings. If the soy sauce to which the acid hydrolyzed protein hydrolyzate is added or the fermented soy sauce to which the preservative is added cannot be called a natural seasoning.