1. Urinary system infection
The urinary tract infection here refers to urinary tract and bladder infection. The urine in the bladder is discharged from the human body through the urethra. The urethra is closely connected with the bladder, so once the urethra is infected, the bladder is usually inflamed. Usually, urinary system diseases are related to personal hygiene. If you do not do a good job in health, you are prone to urinary system diseases, among which women are mostly. About 50% of women have suffered at least once, and some women are affected by multiple infections. Many women suffer from one or two times a year. Escherichia coli is the main culprit in urinary tract infections. The pathogens are widely distributed, usually in the intestines. Some women have a higher chance of getting infected. There are also some women who are infected because of injuries during sexual intercourse. Male infection rates are low relative to women and are usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases. The most common sexually transmitted diseases that cause inflammation of the urethra and bladder are non-specific urethritis and gonorrhea.
2. Prostate disease
It mainly refers to diseases such as prostatitis, prostate cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
(1) Prostatic hyperplasia
This disease is a common disease in elderly men. According to research, the disease usually occurs at the age of 40, but the patient's age is concentrated above 60 years old. The main symptom is dysuria. The milder symptoms are that the number of urinations in the night is more than before. There is still a small amount of urine after the urine is not clean or discharged. If the situation is more serious, the urine flow will become fine or even no urine. In addition to changes in urination, there are other accompanying symptoms, such as waist discomfort, limb weakness, and nocturnal emission. Prostatic hyperplasia is generally controlled by drugs when the early conditions are not serious. If the condition is serious, surgery is taken.
Prostatitis is divided into acute and chronic. Acute symptoms include chills, fever, difficulty urinating, and pain, but they are not common clinically. The chronic symptoms are mainly dysuria and pain in the area around the prostate. If the time is delayed for a long time, it will cause more serious symptoms, such as sexual dysfunction, depression, irritability, and decreased sleep quality. Chronic accounts for a large proportion, probably between 30% and 50%, most of which are strong years, and the proportion of people aged 20-40 is as high as 50%-80%.
(3) prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is affected by geographical and ethnic factors. The incidence rate in Europe and the United States is relatively high, and Asia is relatively low compared to it, but it has also begun to increase in recent years. The patient is mainly an elderly male and is related to age. closely related. In addition, it is hereditary and this is very dangerous. It may not have uncomfortable symptoms in the early stage, but as the condition worsens, the lower urinary tract may develop symptoms such as obstruction and irritation. These are only mild symptoms. In more serious cases, hematuria, incontinence, etc. may not be discharged normally. If bone metastasis occurs in the late stage, it may be followed by symptoms such as bone headache, fracture, and anemia.
3. Urinary system tumors
Generally can occur in any part of the urinary system, such as the kidney, bladder, ureter, urethra, renal pelvis and so on. The internal organs with pipes are located under the renal pelvis, and the inner wall is covered with transitional epithelium. Their internal environment is urine. With the help of urine, carcinogens cause tumors in the transitional epithelium, so the transitional epithelial tumors in these sites have commonalities. More than one organ is onset. Among them, bladder cancer is the most common because the bladder stores urine longer than other organs. The tumor usually occurs in the prime of life, mostly after the age of 40, and the incidence of men is almost double that of women. There are also two types of tumors in infants and young children, which are nephroblastoma and bladder rhabdomyosarcoma, and the incidence rates of men and women are not much different. Among them, the incidence of renal pelvic cancer in China is higher.
4. Urinary system stones
Occurred in the urinary system, also known as urolithiasis, stones may occur in the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Its incidence is affected by the region, for example, the incidence rates in the south and north of China are different, and the south is much higher than the north. In addition, the nutritional status of the human body also affects its incidence. In poor areas, it consumes more plant protein every day, lacks phosphate intake, and the bladder is prone to stones, especially children. Adults in developed countries are prone to calcium stones due to excessive calcium supplementation. The mechanism of urolith formation has not been explained by any theory. Obstruction, infection and other conditions interact with urinary stone, the former will cause the formation of the latter, the latter will also trigger the former. In addition, metabolic diseases can also cause uroliths, such as hyperuricemia.
5. Acute nephritis syndrome
Its infection source is generally streptococcus, clinical features such as proteinuria, hematuria, edema, hypertension and so on.
6. Acute nephritis syndrome
Its clinical features are similar to those of acute nephritic syndrome, but its onset is more urgent.
Its clinical manifestations are similar, such as proteinuria, hematuria, etc., but the pathogenesis, pathogenesis and other aspects are not exactly the same, the lesions are mainly implicated in the kidney glomeruli. Can be divided into three categories, primary glomerular disease is difficult to identify the cause of the disease, secondary refers to glomerular damage in systemic disease, and hereditary mainly due to genetic variation.
How to treat urinary system diseases
1. Emphasis on prevention
Streptococcus is the main culprit of infection, prevention is important in this regard, and upper respiratory tract and skin infection should be avoided as much as possible. Pay attention to urinary tract obstruction, if it is blocked, it should be treated in time to avoid bacterial infection and urinary calculi. The urinary system is covered with transitional epithelium, and there are many cases of metastatic epithelial cells that are cancerous. To prevent this cancer, it is necessary to quit smoking. For urinary stones, it is necessary to prescribe the right medicine, and should also reduce the intake of foods containing urinary components, such as viscera with high nucleoprotein content. If the concentration in the urine is too high, it will cause stones, so you should drink plenty of water.
2. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment
This treatment is very important. In the past, open surgery was generally used to treat prostate obstruction. Now, a laparoscopic electrosurgical resection is used instead, which reduces the patient's pain. At the same time, combined with ultrasound and liquid-electric effects, it can better treat stones. And laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment can also be applied to the treatment of some bladder cancer.
3. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
This technology has been used clinically since the 1980s. The energy generated by electric spark or piezoelectric ceramics passes through the water and enters the human body to shatter the stones, which are then discharged by the human body. This technique can only shatter urinary calculi at first, and now it can shatter gallstones. This technology has many advantages. The first is more convenient. It can be done in an outpatient clinic without open surgery. The second is that there is no need for anesthesia. However, this technology also has its limitations, such as complications, and can not cure recurrence.
4. Renal replacement therapy
This technique is generally used in the late stages of renal failure, including kidney transplantation and dialysis. Compared with other organ transplants, kidney transplantation has the most mature technology, the highest practical value, and the best transplant effect, and dialysis can also be used for some acute renal failure. Blood purification therapies include hemodialysis, filtration and perfusion, of which dialysis is the mainstay. Many patients rely on dialysis to maintain their lives and even carry out some labor. Blood purification is generally used to treat acute renal failure. CAPD is generally used for chronic, and non-dialysis treatment is generally used before the kidney is completely damaged.
5. New technology development
In recent years, due to the development of some doctrines, kidney diseases have begun to adopt some new technologies. Alport's syndrome is hereditary, and the development of genetic research can be a defective gene, which is conducive to early diagnosis. The treatment of immune mechanisms has also made an outstanding contribution to the treatment of kidney disease, but this method also has defects, such as inhibiting harmful cells and inhibiting normal cells.
How to prevent urinary system diseases
1. Do personal hygiene work to avoid bacterial infections. Underwear underwear chooses breathable cotton fabric, and the underwear should be changed every day. It is recommended to take a shower, not to go to the public bath, the toilet should be disinfected frequently, and the towels can not be shared.
2. Drink plenty of water, don't urinate. Urine is generally stored in the bladder. Drink plenty of water and drain the urine in time to avoid bacterial growth. If the urine is yellow, the water is not enough.
3. Keep your body clean before the same room, and your husband's movements should be gentle.
4. After defecation, you should use toilet paper to wipe from front to back. If the direction is reversed, it is easy to bring bacteria to the vagina and urethra to make it infected.
5. If there is inflammation, you should take a hot bath.
6. Sexual intercourse, contraceptives, tampon will contact the vagina, which may increase the chance of infection. It is recommended to use sanitary napkins during the physiological period of women.
7. Cleaning should be moderate. Although cleaning can reduce bacteria to avoid infection, if it is over-cleaned, it may wash away beneficial bacteria, causing E. coli to relax in the vagina, and the urethra may be infected. In addition, it is not recommended to use a stimulating disinfectant soap to prevent the vaginal flora balance from being destroyed.
8. If the bladder is inflamed, use aspirin as appropriate.
9. Take VC in moderation, VC can make the urine acidic and reduce the growth of bacteria. However, some antibiotics cannot be used under acidic conditions, so VC should be taken with the permission of a doctor. If you must take VC, you should not exceed 1000 mg per day.
10. If the bladder infection patients have symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and blood in the urine, they should seek medical advice promptly.