Characteristics of nine commonly used disinfectants

- Jul 26, 2019-

Commonly used disinfectant products are mainly classified into nine categories: chlorine disinfectants, peroxide disinfectants, aldehyde disinfectants, alcohol disinfectants, iodine disinfectants, phenolic disinfectants, ethylene oxide, A biguanide disinfectant and a quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant.

Chlorine disinfectant

It refers to a disinfectant which is soluble in water to produce hypochlorite with microbicidal activity, and its microbicidal active ingredient is often represented by effective chlorine. The hypochlorous acid has a small molecular weight and easily diffuses to the surface of the bacteria and penetrates the cell membrane into the bacteria, causing the bacterial protein to oxidize and causing the bacteria to die. Chlorine disinfectants kill a variety of microorganisms, including bacterial propagules, viruses, fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the most resistant bacterial spores. Such disinfectants include inorganic chlorine compounds (such as sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, trisodium phosphate), organochlorine compounds (such as sodium dichloroisocyanurate, trichloroisocyanuric acid, ammonium chloride T, etc.). Inorganic chlorine is unstable in nature, susceptible to light, heat and moisture, and loses its active ingredients. Organochlorine is relatively stable, but it is unstable after being dissolved in water.

Peroxide disinfectant

It has strong oxidizing power and is sensitive to various microorganisms to kill all microorganisms. Such disinfectants include hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. They have the advantage of leaving no residual toxicity on the articles after disinfection.

Chlorine dioxide has a strong adsorption and penetration ability to the cell wall, and the release of atomic oxygen oxidizes the thiol-containing enzyme in the cell to sterilize. A large number of foreign experimental studies have shown that chlorine dioxide is a safe, non-toxic disinfectant, without the "three-way" effect (carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic), and does not react with organic matter during the disinfection process. Produces "triad" organic chlorides or other toxic substances. However, since chlorine dioxide has a very strong oxidizing power, it should be avoided at high concentrations (>500 ppm). When the concentration is less than 500ppm, its effect on the human body can be neglected. When it is less than 100ppm, it will not have any influence on the human body, including physiological and biochemical effects. There is no sensitization to the skin. In fact, the conventional use concentration of chlorine dioxide is much lower than 500 ppm, and is generally only about several tens of ppm. Therefore, chlorine dioxide is also recognized internationally as a safe, non-toxic green disinfectant.

Aldehyde disinfectant

Including formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. The principle of such disinfection is that an active alkylating agent acts on the amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfhydryl groups in the microbial protein, thereby destroying the protein molecules and causing the microorganisms to die. Both formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde can kill various microorganisms. Because they have stimulating and curing effects on human skin and mucous membranes, and can make people sensitized, they can not be used for disinfection of air, utensils, etc., and are generally only used in hospitals. Disinfect or sterilize medical devices, and disinfected or sterilized items must be rinsed with sterile water before use.

Alcohol disinfectant

The most commonly used are ethanol and isopropanol, which can coagulate proteins and cause microbial death. It is a medium-acting disinfectant that kills bacterial propagules and destroys most lipophilic viruses such as herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunity. Defective virus, etc. The microbial action of alcohols can also be affected by organic matter, and because of the volatilization, soaking or repeated wiping should be used to ensure the action time. Alcohols are often used as solvents for certain disinfectants, and they have synergistic effects. The usual concentration is 75%. According to foreign reports: 80% ethanol has a good inactivation effect on the virus. There are many complex alcohol disinfectants at home and abroad, and these products are mostly used for hand skin disinfection.

Iodine-containing disinfectant

Including iodine and iodophor, it can kill bacterial propagules, fungi and some viruses, can be used for skin and mucous membrane disinfection, and hospitals are often used for surgical hand washing.

Phenolic disinfectant

Including phenol, cresol, halogenated phenol and phenol derivatives, commonly used coal phenol soap, also known as sul, its main component is methyl phenol. Halogenated phenol can enhance the bactericidal action of phenol. For example, trichloro hydroxy diphenyl ether has been widely used as a preservative for clinical disinfection and preservation.

Ethylene oxide

Also known as ethylene oxide, it is a highly effective disinfectant that kills all microorganisms. Because of its strong penetrating power, it is often used for disinfection or sterilization after packaging leather, plastic, medical equipment and medical supplies, and it is harmless to most items. It can be used for disinfection of precision instruments and valuables, especially Paper color has no effect, and it is often used for the disinfection of books and text files.

Biguanide and quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant

In addition, there are biguanide and quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants, which are cationic surfactants, which have bactericidal and decontaminating effects. They are generally used for cleaning and disinfecting non-critical items in hospitals, and can also be used for hand disinfection and dissolving them. Ethanol enhances its bactericidal effect as a skin disinfectant. Since such compounds can alter the permeability of bacterial cell membranes, they are often compounded with other disinfectants to increase their bactericidal effect and rate of sterilization.